Bibliography: Empirical Methods & Critical Race Theory

Engagement with advanced interdisciplinary research and scholarship on race and inequality is central to CLEAR’s goals of advancing understanding and advocating for justice. Below is a sampling of work of particular relevance to the center, concentrated in the study of empirical methods and critical race theory. For questions or to recommend other studies for the bibliography, please email

Law Review Articles

Catherine Albiston & Laura Beth Nielsen, The Procedural Attack on Civil Rights: The Empirical Reality of Buckhannon for the Private Attorney General, 54 UCLA L. Rev. 1087 (2007).

Catherine R. Albiston & Rebecca L. Sandefur, Expanding the Empirical Study of Access to Justice, 2013 Wis. L. Rev. 101 (2013).

Celesta A. Albonetti & Robert D. Baller, Sentencing in Federal Drug Trafficking/Manufacturing Cases: A Multilevel Analysis of Extra-Legal Defendant Characteristics, Guidelines Departures, and Continuity of Culture, 14 J. Gender, Race & Just. 41 (2010).

Ifeoma Ajunwa, Genetic Data and Civil Rights, 51 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 75 (2016).

Ifeoma Ajunwa, The Modern Day Scarlet Letter, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 2999 (2015).

Stanley R. Bailey, Aliya Sapterstein & Andrew M. Penner, Race, Color, and Income Inequality Across the Americas, 31 Demographic Res. 735 (2014). 

Mario L. Barnes, Taking a Stand: An Initial Assessment of the Social and Racial Effects of Recent Innovations in Self-Defense Laws, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 3179 (2015).

Mario L. Barnes & Robert S. Chang, Analyzing Stops, Citations, and Searches in Washington and Beyond, 35 Seattle U. L. Rev. 675 (2012).

Mario L. Barnes & Erwin Chemerinsky, The Once and Future Equal Protection Doctrine?, 43 Conn. L. Rev. 1059 (2010-2011).

Mario L. Barnes, Erwin Chemerinsky & Trina Jones, A Post-race Equal Protection?,  98 Geo. L.J. 967 (2010).

William J. Bowers, Benjamin D. Steiner & Marla Sandys, Death Sentencing in Black and White: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Jurors' Race and Jury Racial Composition, 3 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 171 (2001).

Tonya L. Brito, David J. Pate, Jr. & Jia-Hui Stefanie Wong, “I Do for My Kids”: Negotiating Race and Racial Inequality in Family Court,  83 Fordham L. Rev. 3027 (2015).

Kim Shayo Buchanan, Our Prisons, Ourselves: Race, Gender and the Rule of Law,  29 Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. 1 (2010).

Paul Butler, Stop and Frisk and Torture-Lite: Police Terror of Minority Communities,  12 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 57 (2014).

Paul Butler, The White Fourth Amendment, 43 Tex. Tech L. Rev. 249 (2010).

Devon Carbado, Blue-on-Black Violence: A Provisional Model of Some of the Causes, 104 Geo. L.J. 1479 (2016).

Devon Carbado, Colorblind Intersectionality, 38 Signs 811 (2013).

Devon W. Carbado, Critical What What?, 43 Conn. L. Rev. 1593 (2011).

Devon Carbado, Intraracial Diversity, 60 UCLA L. Rev. 1130 (2013).

Devon W. Carbado, Race to the Bottom, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 1283 (2002).

Devon W. Carbado, (E)Racing the Fourth Amendment, 35 Mich. L. Rev. 946 (2002).

Devon W. Carbado, Yellow by Law, 97 Cal L. Rev. 633 (2009).

Devon W. Carbado & Mitu Gulati, The Law and Economics of Critical Race Theory, 112 Yale L. J. 1757 (2003).

Devon Carbado & Mitu Gulati, Race to the Top of the Corporate Ladder: What Minorities Do When They Get There, 61 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1643 (2004).

Devon Carbado, Patrick Shin & G. Mitu Gulati, The Diversity Feedback Loop, 2014 U. Chi. Legal F. 345 (2014).

Devon W. Carbado & Cheryl Harris, The New Racial Preferences, 96 Cal. L. Rev. 1139 (2008).

Devon W. Carbado & Cheryl Harris, Undocumented Criminal Procedure, 58 UCLA Law Rev. 1543 (2011).

Devon W. Carbado & Rachal Moran, The Story of Law and American Racial Consciousness: Building a Canon One Case at a Time, 76 UKMC L. Rev. 851 (2008).

Devon Carbado, Kate M. Turetsky & Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Privileged or Mismatched: The Lose-Lose Position of African Americans in the Affirmative Action Debate, 64 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 174 (2016).

Ming Hsu Chen, Alienated: A Reworking of the Racialization Thesis After September 11, 18 Am. U. J. Gender, Soc. Pol'y & L. 411 (2010).

Ming Hsu Chen, Two Wrongs Make a Right: Hybrid Claims of Discrimination, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 685 (2004).

Ming Hsu Chen & Taeku Lee, Reimagining Democratic Inclusion: Asian Americans and the Voting Rights Act, 3 UC Irvine L. Rev. 101 (2013).

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, Close Encounters of Three Kinds: On Teaching Dominance, Feminism, and Intersectionality, 46 Tulsa L. Rev. 151 (2010).

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, From Private Violence to Mass Incarceration: Thinking Intersectionally About Women, Race, and Social Control, 59 UCLA Law Review 1418 (2012).

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color, 43 Stan. L. Rev. 1241 (1991).

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, Race, Reform, and Retrenchment: Transformation and Legitimation in Antidiscrimination Law, 101 Harv. L. Rev. 1331 (1988).

Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, Twenty Years of Critical Race Theory: Looking Back to Move Forward, 43 Conn. L. Rev. 1253 (2011).

Meera E. Deo, Ebbs and Flows: The Courts in Racial Context,  8 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 167 (2007). 

Meera E. Deo, Empirically Derived Compelling State Interests in Affirmative Action Jurisprudence, 65 Hastings L.J. 661 (2014).

Meera E. Deo, Faculty Insights on Educational Diversity, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 3115 (2015). 

Meera E. Deo, Looking Forward to Diversity in Legal Academia,  29 Berkeley J. Gender L. & Just. 352 (2014).

Meera E. Deo, The Promise of Grutter: Diverse Interactions at the University of Michigan Law School, 17 Mich. J. Race & L. 63 (2011). 

Meera E. Deo, Separate, Unequal, and Seeking Support, 28 Harv. J. Racial & Ethnic Just. 9 (2012).

Meera E. Deo, Two Sides of a Coin: Safe Space and Segregation in Race/Ethnic-Specific Law Student Organizations, 42 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol’y 83 (2013).

Meera E. Deo, The Ugly Truth About Legal Academia, 80 Brook. L. Rev. 943 (2015).

Meera E. Deo, Walter R. Allen, A.T.  Panter, Charles Daye & Linda Wightman, Struggles & Support: Diversity in U.S. Law Schools, 23 Nat’l Black L.J. 71 (2009-2010). 

Meera E. Deo, Maria Woodruff & Rican Vue, Paint By Number? How the Race and Gender of Law School Faculty Affect the First-Year Curriculum, 29 Chicano-Latino L. Rev. 1 (2010).

Tracey E. George, An Empirical Study of the Empirical Legal Scholarship: The Top Ten Law Schools,  81 Ind. L. J. 142 (2006).

Laura E. Gómez, Constructing Latina/o Identities (Differences, Solidarity and Law: Building Latina/o Communities through the LatCrit Theory), 19 Chicano-Latino L. Rev. 187 (1998).

Laura E. Gómez, Race Mattered: Racial Formation and the Politics of Crime in Territorial New Mexico, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 1395 (2002).

Laura E. Gómez, What's Race Got to Do with It? Press Coverage of the Latino Electorate in the Presidential 2008 Primary Season, 24 St. John's J. of Legal Commentary 425 (2009).

Neil Gotanda, Beyond Supreme Court Antidiscrimination: An Essay On Racial Subordinations, Racial Pleasures And Commodified Race,  1 Colum. J. Race & L. 273 (2012).

Neil Gotanda, New Directions in Asian American Jurisprudence,  17 Asian Am. L.J. 5 (2010).

Paul Gowder, Critical Race Science and Critical Race Philosophy of Science, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 3155 (2015).

Aya Gruber, When Theory Met Practice: Distributional Analysis in Criminal Law Theorizing, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 3211 (2015).

Kaaryn Gustafson, Degradation Ceremonies and the Criminalization of Low-Income Women, 3 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 297 (2013).

John Hagan & Celesta Albonetti, Race, Class, and the Perception of Criminal Injustice in America,  88 m. J. Sociol. 329 (1982).

Ange-Marie Hancock, Empirical Intersectionality: A Tale of Two Approaches, 3 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 259 (2013).

Ange-Marie Hancock, When is Fear for One’s Life Race-Gendered? An Intersectional Analysis of the Bureau of Immigration Appeals In re A-R-C-G-Decision, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 2977 (2015).

Cheryl I. Harris, Limiting Equality: The Divergence and Convergence of Title VII and Equal Protection,  2014 University of Chicago Legal Forum 95 (2014).

Cheryl I. Harris, Critical Race Studies: An Introduction, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 1215 (2001).

Cheryl I. Harris, Whiteness As Property, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 1709 (1993).

Cheryl Harris & Kimberly West-Faulcon, Reading Ricci: Whitening Discrimination, Racing Test Fairness, 58 UCLA L. Rev. 73 (2010).

Tanya Katerí Hernández, The Value of Intersectional Comparative Analysis to the "Post-Racial" Future of Critical Race Theory: A Brazil-U.S. Comparative Case Study,  43 Conn. L. Rev. 1407 (2011).

Margaret C. Hobday, Geneva Finn & Myron Orfield, A Missed Opportunity: Minnesota's Failed Experiment with Choice-Based Integration, 35 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 936 (2009).

Jerry Kang, Implicit Bias and Pushback from the Left, 54 St. Louis L. Rev. 1139 (2010).

Jerry Kang, Racial Violence Against Asian Americans, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 1926 (1993).

Jerry Kang, Rethinking Intent and Impact: Some Behavioral Realism About Equal Protection, 66 la. L. Rev. 627 (2015).

Jerry Kang, Trojan Horses of Race, 118 Harv. L. Rev. 1489 (2005).

Jerry Kang & Mahzarin Banaji , Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of Affirmative Action, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1063 (2006).

Jerry Kang, Mark Bennett, Devon Carbado, Pam Casey, Nilanjana Dasgupta, David Faigman, Rachel Godsil, Anthony G. Greenwald, Justin Levinson & Jennifer Mnookin, Implicit Bias in the Courtroom, 59 UCLA L. Rev. 1124 (2012).

Jerry Kang & Kristin Lane, Seeing through Colorblindness: Implicit Bias and the Law, 58 UCLA L. Rev. 465 (2010).

Nancy J. King, Postconviction Review of Jury Discrimination: Measuring the Effects of Juror Race on Jury Decisions, 92 Mich. L. Rev. 63 (1993).

Cynthia Lee, A New Approach to Voir Dire on Racial Bias, 5 UC Irvine L. Rev. 843-872 (2015).

Cynthia Lee, Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society, 91 N.C. L. Rev. 1555 (2013).

Robin. A. Lenhardt, Understanding the Mark: Race, Stigma, and Equality in Context, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 3 (2004).

Justin D. Levinson, Robert J. Smith & Danielle Young, Devaluing Death:  An Empirical Study of Implicit Racial Bias on Jury-Eligible Citizens in Six Death Penalty States, 87 NYU L. Rev. 513 (2014).

Justin D. Levinson, Forgotten Racial Equality: Implicit Bias, Decisionmaking, and Misremembering, 57 Duke L. J. 345 (2007).

Justin D. Levinson, Huajian Cai & Danielle Young, Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test, 8 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 187 (2010).

Justin D. Levinson, Robert J. Smith & Zoe Robinson, Implicit White Favoritism in the Criminal Justice System, 66 La. L. Rev. 871 (2015).

Ian Haney Lopez, Intentional Blindness,  87 NYU L. Rev. 87 (2012).

Ian Haney Lopez, Is The "Post" In Post-Racial The "Blind" In Colorblind?, 32 Cardozo L. Rev. 807 (2011).

Ian Haney Lopez, Post-Racial Racism: Racial Stratification and Mass Incarceration in the Age of Obama,  98 Calif. L. Rev. 1023 (2010).

Osagie A. Obasogie, Can the Blind Lead the Blind? Rethinking Equal Protection Jurisprudence Through an Empirical Examination of Blind People's Understanding of Race, 15 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 705 (2013).

Osagie A. Obasogie, Foreword: Critical Race Theory and Empirical Methods, 3U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 183 (2013).

Osagie K. Obasogie, Julie N. Harris-Wai, Katherine Darling, Carolyn Keagy & Michael Levesque, Race in the Life Sciences: An Empirical Assessment, 1950-2000, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 3089 (2015).

Priscilla A. Ocen, The New Racially Restrictive Covenant: Race, Welfare, and the Policing of Black Women in Subsidized Housing, 59 UCLA L. Rev. 1540 (2012).

Priscilla A. Ocen, Punishing Pregnancy: Race, Incarceration, and the Shackling of Pregnant Prisoner, 100 Cal. L.R. 1239 (2012).

Priscilla A. Ocen, Unshackling Intersectionality, 10 Du Bois Rev. 471 (2013).

Angela Onwuachi-Willig & Mario L. Barnes, The Obama Effect: Understanding Emerging Meanings of Obama in Anti-Discrimination Law, 87 Ind. L. J. 325 (2012).

Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Erwin Chemerincky & Mario Barnes, Judging Opportunity Lost: Assessing the Viability of Race-Based Affirmative Action After Fisher v. University of Texas, Austin, 62 UCLA L. Rev. 272 (2015).

Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Emily Houh & Mary Campbell, Cracking the Egg: Which Came First—Stigma or Affirmative Action? 96 Cal. L. Rev. 1299 (2008).

Angela Onwuachi-Willig & William C. Kidder, Still Hazy after All These Years: The Data and Theory Behind 'Mismatch’ 92 Tex. L. Rev. 895 (2014).

Anthony Page, Batson's Blind-Spot: Unconscious Stereotyping and the Peremptory Challenge, 85 B.U. L. Rev. 155 (2005).

Gregory S. Parks & Danielle C. Heard, ’Assassinate the Nigger Ape’: Obama, Implicit Imagery, and the Dire Consequences of Racist Jokes, 11 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 259 (2009).

Gregory S. Parks, Shayne E. Jones, Rashawn Ray, Matthew W. Hughey & Jonathan M. Cox, White Boys Drink, Black Girls Yell: A Racialized and Gendered Analysis of Violent Hazing and the Law, 18 J. Gender, Race & Just. 97 (2015).

Gregory S. Parks & Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Implicit Bias, Election '08, and the Myth of a Post-Racial America, 37 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 659 (2009).

Gregory S. Parks, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski & Richard A. Epstein, Implicit Race Bias and the 2008 Presidential Election: Much Ado about Nothing?, 157 U. Pa. L. Rev. 210 (2009).

Gregory S. Parks & Rashawn Ray, Poetry as Evidence, 3 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 217 (2013).

Gregory S. Parks & Quinetta M. Roberson, “Eighteen Million Cracks”: Gender’s Role in the 2008 Presidential Campaign, 17 Wm. & Mary J. Women & L. 321 (2011).

Gregory S. Parks & Quinetta M. Roberson, Michelle Obama: A Contemporary Analysis of Race and Gender Discrimination through the Lens of Title VII, 20 Hastings Women's L.J. 3 (2009).

Kimani Paul-Emile, Beyond Title VII: Rethinking Race, Ex-Offender Status, and Employment Discrimination in the Information Age, 100 Va. L. Rev. 893 (2014).

Kimani Paul-Emile, Foreword: Critical Race Theory and Empirical Methods Conference, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 2953 (2015).

Kimani Paul-Emile, Patients’ Racial Preferences and the Medical Culture of Accommodation, 60 UCLA L. Rev. 462 (2012).

Kimani Paul-Emile, The Regulation of Race in Science, 80 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1115 (2012).

Abagail Perdue & Gregory S. Parks, The Nth Decree: Examining Intra-racial Use of the N-word in Employment Discrimination Cases, 64 DePaul L. Rev. 65 (2014).

john a. powell, Affirmative Action: Where Do We Go From Here?, 48 U.S.F. L. Rev. 281 (2013).

john a. powell & Stephen Menendian, Fisher v. Texas: The Limits of Exhaustion and the Future of Race Conscious University Admissions, 47 U. Mich. J.L. Reform 899 (2014).

Victor D. Quintanilla, Critical Race Empiricism: A New Means to Measure Civil Procedure, 3 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 187 (2013).

Victor D. Quintanilla & Cheryl R. Kaiser, The Same-Actor Inference of Non-Discrimination: Moral Credentialing and the Psychological and Legal Licensing of Bias, 104 Cal. L. Rev. 1 (2016).

Stephen M. Rich, Against Prejudice, 80 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1 (2011).

Stephen M. Rich, Inferred Classifications, 99 Va. L. Rev. 1525 (2013).

Stephen M. Rich, A Matter of Perspective: Textualism, Stare Decisis, and Federal Employment Discrimination Law, 87 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1197 (2014).

Stephen M. Rich, One Law of Race?, 100 Iowa L. Rev. 201 (2014).

Stephen M. Rich, What Diversity Contributes to Equal Opportunity, 89 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1111 (2016).

L. Song Richardson, Arrest Efficiency and the Fourth Amendment, 95 Minn. L. Rev. 2035 (2010).

L. Song Richardson, Cognitive Bias, Police Character, and the Fourth Amendment, 44 Ariz. St. L. J. 267 (2012).

L. Song Richardson, Implicit Racial Bias and the Perpetrator Perspective: A Response to Chin and Vernon’s “Reasonable but Unconstitutional,” 83 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1008 (2015).

L. Song Richardson, Police Efficiency and the Fourth Amendment, 87 Ind. L. J. 1143 (2012).

L. Song Richardson, Police Racial Violence: Lessons from Social Psychology, 83 Fordham L. Rev. 2961 (2015). 

L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, From Interraciality to Racial Realism, 92 Tex. L. Rev. 669 (2014).

L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage, 122 Yale L.J. 100 (2013).

L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, Interrogating Racial Violence, 12 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 115 (2014).

L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, Self-Defense and the Suspicion Heuristic, 98 Iowa L. Rev. 293 (2012).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Child Protection as Surveillance of African American Families, 36 J. Soc. Welfare & Fam. L. 426 (2014).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Collateral Consequences, Genetic Surveillance, and the New Biopolitics of Race, 54 How. L.J. 567 (2011).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Complicating the Triangle of Race, Class, and State: The Insights of Black Feminists, 37 Ethnic & Racial Stud. 1776 (2014).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Loving v. Virginia as a Civil Rights Decision, 59 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 175 (2014-2015).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Prison, Foster Care, and the Systemic Punishment of Black Mothers, 59 UCLA L. Rev. 1474 (2012).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Reconciling Equal Protection Law in the Public and in the Family: The Role of Racial Politics, 162 U. Pa. L. Rev. 283 (2014).

Dorothy E. Roberts, What's Wrong with Race-Based Medicine?: Genes, Drugs, and Health Disparities, 12 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 1 (2011).

Dorothy E. Roberts & Jonathan Metzl, Structural Competency Meets Structural Racism: Race, Politics, and the Structure of Medical Knowledge, 16 Virtual Mentor 674 (2014).

Russell Robinson, Marriage Equality and Postracialism, 61 UCLA L. Rev. 1010 (2014).

Russell Robinson, Masculinity as Prison: Sexual Identity, Race, and Incarceration, 99 Cal. L. Rev. 1309 (2011).

Russell K. Robinson, Perceptual Segregation, 108 Colum. L. Rev. 1093 (2008).

Russell Robinson, Racing the Closet, 61 Stan. L. Rev. 1463 (2009).

Russell Robinson, Unequal Protection, 68 Stan. L. Rev 151 (2016).

Daria Roithmayr, Racial Cartels, 16 Mich. J. Race & L. 45 (2010).

Daria Roithmayr, Them That Has, Gets, 27 Misss. C.L. Rev. 373 (2008).

Maya Sen & Omar Wasow. Race as a ‘Bundle of Sticks: Designs that Estimate Effects of Seemingly Immutable Characteristics, 19 Ann. Surv. Am. L. 499 (2016).

Patrick Shin, Discrimination Under a Description, 47 Ga. L. Rev. 1 (2012).

Patrick Shin, Diversity v. Colorblindness,  2009 BYU L. Rev. 1175 (2009).

Patrick Shin, Liability for Unconscious Discrimination? A Thought Experiment in the Theory of Employment Discrimination Law, 62 Hastings L.J. 67 (2010).

Patrick Shin & Mitu Gulati, Cultivating Inclusion, 112 Mich. L. Rev. 117 (2014).

Patrick Shin & Mitu Gulati, Showcasing Diversity, 89 N.C. L. Rev. 1017 (2011).

Samuel R. Sommers & Phoebe C. Ellsworth, How Much Do We Really Know about Race and Juries - A Review of Social Science Theory and Research, 78 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 997 (2003).

Robin Walker Sterling, “Children Are Different:” Implicit Bias, Rehabilitation, and the “New” Juvenile Jurisprudence, 46 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 1019 (2013).

Robin Walker Sterling, Fundamental Unfairness: In re Gault and The Road Not Taken, 72 Md. L. Rev. 607 (2013).

Jill D. Weinberg & Laura Beth Nielsen, Examining Empathy: Discrimination, Experience, and Judicial Decisionmaking, 85 S. Cal. L. Rev. 313 (2012).

Ruqaiijah Yearby, African Americans Can't Win, Break Even, or Get Out of the System: The Persistence of 'Unequal Treatment' in Nursing Home Care, 82 Temp. L. Rev. 1177 (2010).

Ruqaiijah Yearby, Breaking The Cycle of ‘Unequal Treatment’ with Health Care Reform: Acknowledging and Addressing the Continuation of Racial Bias, 44 Conn. L. Rev. 1281 (2012).

Ruqaiijah Yearby, Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Putting an End to Separate and Unequal Health Care in the United States 50 Years After the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 25 Health Matrix 1 (2015). 

Peer-Reviewed/Non-Law Review Articles

Jordan Abshire & Brian H. Bornstein, Juror Sensitivity to the Cross-Race Effect, 27 L. & Hum. Behav. 471 (2003).

Celesta A. Albonetti, Race and the Probability of Pleading Guilty, 7 J. Quantitative Criminology 315 (1990).

Celesta A. Albonetti, Sentencing under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Effects of Defendant Characteristics, Guilty Pleas, and Departures on Sentence Outcomes for Drug Offenses, 1991-1992, 31 L. & Soc'y Rev. 789 (1997).

Celesta A. Albonetti, Robert M. Hauser, John Hagan & Ilene H. Nagel, Criminal Justice Decision Making as a Stratification Process: The Role of Race and Stratification Resources in Pretrial Release, 5 J. Quantitative Soc. 57 (1989).

Shamena Anwar, Patrick Bayer & Randi Hjalmarsson, The Impact of Jury Race in Criminal Trials, 127 Q. J. Econ. 1017 (2012).

Stanley R. Bailey, Aliya Sapterstein & Andrew M. Penner, Race, Color, and Income Inequality Across the Americas, 31 Demographic Res. 735 (2014).

Mario L. Barnes & Erwin Chemerinsky, The Disparate Treatment of Race and Class in Constitutional Jurisprudence, 72 L. & Contemp. Probs. 109 (2009).

Patrick Bayer, Hanming Fang, and Robert McMillan (2014) Separate When Equal? Racial Inequality and Residential Segregation, 82 J. Urb. Econ. 32 (2014).

Patrick Bayer, Fernando Ferreira and Stephen Ross, The Vulnerability of Minority Homeowners in the Housing Boom and Bust, 8 Am. Econ. J. Econ. Pol’y 1 (2016).

Hilary B. Bergsieker, J. Nicole Shelton & Jennifer A. Richeson, To Be Liked Versus Respected: Divergent Goals in Interracial Interactions, 99 Interpersonal Rel. & Group Processes 248 (2010).

Rachel Kahn Best, Linda Hamilton Krieger, Lauren B. Edelman & Scott R. Eliason, Multiple Disadvantages: An Empirical Test of Intersectionality Theory in EEO Litigation, 45 L. & Soc'y Rev. 991 (2011).

Paul Butler, Black Male Exceptionalism? The Problems and Potential of Black Male-Focused Interventions, 10 DuBois Rev. 485 (2013).

Mary E. Campbell, Multiracial Groups and Educational Inequality: A Rainbow or a Divide?, 56 Soc. Probs. 425 (2009).

Mary E. Campbell & Molly A. Martin, Race, Immigration and Exogamy among the Native Born: Variation across Communities, 2 Soc. Race & Ethnicity 1 (2015).

Devon W. Carbado, (E)Racing Education, 35 Equity & Excellence in Educ. 181 (2002).

Devon Carbado & Mitu Gulati, Airport Profiling: Cost-Benefit Calculus and Beyond, 37 Econ. & P. Wk. 2373 (2002). 

Devon Carbado, Catherine Fisk & Mitu Gulati, After Inclusion, 4 Ann. Rev. L. & Soc. Sci. 83 (2008).

Devon W. Carbado & Daria Roithmayr, Critical Race Theory Meets Social Science, 10 Ann. Rev. L. & Soc. Sci. 149 (2014).

David Cook-Martín & David FitzGerald, Liberalism and the Limits of Inclusion: Race and Immigration Law in the Americas, 1850-2000, 41 J. of Interdisciplinary Hist. 7 (2010).

Jill K. Doerner & Stephen Demuth, The Independent and Joint Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age on Sentencing Outcomes in the U.S. Federal Courts, 27 Just. Q. 1 (2010).

Howard C. Daudistel, Harmon M. Hosch, Malcolm D. Holmes & Joseph B. Graves Effects of Defendant Ethnicity on Juries' Dispositions of Felony Cases, 29 J. Applied Soc. Psychol. 317 (1999).

Meera E. Deo, The Promise of Grutter: Diverse Interactions at the University of Michigan Law School, 17 Mich. J. Race & L. 63 (2011).

Meera E. Deo, Separate, Unequal, and Seeking Support, 28 Harv. J. Racial & Ethnic Just. 9 (2012).

Meera E. Deo, Two Sides of a Coin: Safe Space and Segregation in Race/Ethnic-Specific Law Student Organizations, 42 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol’y 83 (2013).

Meera E. Deo, Walter R. Allen, A.T.  Panter, Charles Daye & Linda Wightman, Struggles & Support: Diversity in U.S. Law Schools, 23 Nat’l Black L.J. 71 (2009-2010).

Meera E. Deo, Maria Woodruff & Rican Vue, Paint By Number? How the Race and Gender of Law School Faculty Affect the First-Year Curriculum, 29 Chicano-Latino L. Rev. 1 (2010). 

Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Paul G. Davies, Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns & Sheri Lynn Johnson, Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predict Capital Sentencing Outcomes, 17 Psychol. Sci. 383 (2006).

Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Phillip Atiba Goff, Valerie J. Purdie & Paul G. Davies, Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing, 87 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 876 (2004).

Russ K. Espinoza & Cynthia Willis Esqueda, Defendant and Defense Attorney Characteristics and their Effects on Juror Decision Making and Prejudice against Mexican Americans, 14 Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychol. 364 (2008).

Cynthia Willis Esqueda, Russ K.E. Espinoza & Scott E. Culhane, The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Experiment of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors, 30 Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 181 (2008).

Amy Farrell, Geoff Ward & Danielle Rousseau, Intersections of Gender and Race in Federal Sentencing: Examining Court Contexts and the Effects of Representative Court Authorities, 14 J. Gender, Race & Just. 85 (2010).

Roland G. Fryer, Devah Pager & Jorg Spenkuch, Racial Disparities in Job Finding and Offered Wages, 56 J. L. & Econ. 633 (2013).

Phillip Atiba Goff, Not Yet Human: Implicit Knowledge, Historical Dehumanization, and Contemporary Consequences, 94 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 292 (2008).

Laura E. Gómez, The Birth of the “Hispanic” Generation: Attitudes of Mexican American Political Elites Toward the Hispanic Label, 19 Latin Am. Perspectives 45 (1992).

Laura E. Gómez, Looking for Race in All the Wrong Places, 46 Law & Soc’y Rev. 221 (2012).

Laura E. Gómez, Race, Colonialism, and Criminal Law: Mexicans and the American Criminal Justice System in Territorial New Mexico, 34 L. & Soc'y Rev. 1129 (2000).

Laura E. Gómez, Understanding Law and Race as Mutually Constitutive: An Invitation to Explore an Emerging Field, 6 Ann. Rev. of L. & Soc. Sci. 487 (2010).

Erika V. Hall, Adam D. Galinsky & Katherine W. Philliips, Gender Profiling: A Gendered Race Perspective on Person-Position Fit, 41 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bull. 853 (2015).

Allison V. Hall, Erika V. Hall & Jamie L. Perry, Black and Blue: Exploring Racial Bias and Law Enforcement in the Killings of Unarmed Black Male Civilians, 71 Am. Psychol. 175 (2016).

Erika V. Hall, Katherine W. Phillips & Sarah S.M. Townsend, A Rose By Any Other Name? The Consequences of Subtyping ‘African-Americans’ from ‘Blacks’, 56 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 183 (2015).

Lance Hannon, Robert DeFina & Sarah K. Bruch, The Relationship Between Skin Tone and School Suspension for African American Youth, 5 Race & Soc. Probs. 281 (2013).

John R. Hepburn & Celesta A. Albonetti, Recidivism Among Drug Offenders: A Survival Analysis of the Effects of Offender Characteristics, Type of Offense, and Two Types of Intervention, 10J. Quantitative Criminol. 159 (1994).

Tanya Katerí Hernández, The Legal Challenges of Diversity, 63 J. Legal Educ. 740 (2013-2014).

James D. Johnson, Rodney King and O.J. Revisited: The Impact of Race and Defendant Empathy Induction on Judicial Decisions, 32 J. Applied Soc. Psychol. 1208 (2002).

Olatunde C.A. Johnson, Legislating Racial Fairness in Criminal Justice, 39 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 233 (2007).

Jerry Kang, Nilanjana Dasgupta, Kumar Yogeeswaran & Gary Blasi, Are Ideal Litigators White? Measuring the Myth of Colorblindness, 7 J. Empirical Leg. Stud. 886 (2010).

Jerry Kang, Kristin Lane & Mahzarin Banaji, Implicit Social Cognition and the Law, 3 Ann. Rev. L.  Soc. Sci. 427 (2007).

Markus Kemmelmeier, The Effects of Race and Social Dominance Orientation in Simulated Juror Decision Making, 35 J. Applied Soc. Psychol. 1030 (2005).

Aaron Kupchik & Geoff Ward, Race, Poverty, and Exclusionary School Security: An Empirical Analysis of U.S. Elementary, Middle, and High Schools, 0 Youth Violence & Juv. Just. 1 (2013). 

Catherine Lee & John D. Skrentny, Race Categorization and the Regulation of Business and Science, 44 Law & Soc’y Rev. 617 (2010).

Justin D. Levinson, Forgotten Racial Equality: Implicit Bias, Decisionmaking, and Misremembering, 57 Duke L. J. 345 (2007).

Justin D. Levinson, Huajian Cai & Danielle Young, Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test, 8 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 187 (2010).

Christopher Lyons & Becky Pettit. Compounded Disadvantage: Race, Incarceration, and Wage Growth, 58 Social Problems 257 (2011).

Rachel Moran, What Counts as Knowledge?: A Reflection on Race, Social Science, and the Law, 44 L. & Soc’y Rev. 515 (2010).

Ann Morning, Towards a Sociology of Racial Conceptualization for the 21st Century, 87 Social Forces 1167 (2009).

Calvin Morrill, Lauren B. Edelman, Karolyn Tyson & Richard Arum, Legal Mobilization in Schools: The Paradox of Rights and Race Among Youth, 44 L. & Soc’y Rev. 651 (2010).

David B. Mustard, Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts, 44 J. L. & Econ. 285 (2001).

Osagie K. Obasogie, Beyond Best Practices Strict Scrutiny as a Regulatory Model for Race-Specific Medicines, 36 J.L. Med. & Ethics 491 (2008).

Osagie A. Obasogie, Do Blind People See Race? Social, Legal, and Theoretical Considerations, 44 Law & Soc'y Rev. 585 (2010).

Myron Orfield, Regional Strategies for Racial Integration of Schools and Housing Post-Parents Involved, 29 L. & Inequality 149 (2011).

Joseph B. Padilla, Monica K. Miller & Angela D. Broadus, Analysis of Hispanic Representation and Conceptualization in Psychology and Law Research, 26 Behav. Sci. L. 655 (2008).

Devah Pager, Young Disadvantaged Men: Reactions from the Perspective of Race, 635 Annals Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Sci. 123 (2011).

Devah Pager & Bruce Western, Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments, 68 J. Soc. Issues 221 (2012).

Devah Pager, Bruce Western & Bart Bonikoswki, Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment, 74 Am. Soc. Rev. 777 (2009).

Gregory S. Parks, Shayne E. Jones, Rashawn Ray & Matthew W. Hughey, Complicit in their Own Demise?, 39 Law & Soc. Inquiry 938. (2014).

Andrew M. Penner and Aliya Sapterstein, Disentangling the Effects of Racial Self-identification and Classification by Others: The Case of Arrest, 52 Demography 1017 (2015).

Andrew M. Penner & Aliya Saperstein, Engendering Racial Perceptions: An Intersectional Analysis of How Social Status Shapes Race, 27 Gender & Soc’y 319 (2013).

Becky Pettit & Bryan Sykes, Civil Rights Legislation and Legalized Exclusion: Mass Incarceration and the Masking of Inequality, 30 Soc. F. 589 (2015).

Victoria Plaut, Diversity Science: Why and How Difference Makes a Difference, 21 Psychol. Inquiry 77 (2010).

john a. powell & Caitlin Watt, Negotiating the New Political and Racial Environment, 11 J.L. Soc'y 31 (2009-2010).

john a. powell, Tracing the History of Racial Inclusion and Debunking the Color-Blond/Post-Racial Myth, 40 Hum. Rts. 17 (2013).

john a. powell, Understanding Structural Racialization, 47 Clearinghouse Rev. 146 (2013).

Joshua M. Price, Critical Race Theory's Dream Narratives: A Method for an Anti-Racist Social Science? 32 Stud. in L., Pol. & Soc'y 39 (2004).

Lincoln Quillian, Segregation and Poverty Concentration: The Role of Three Segregations, 77 Am. Soc. Rev. 354 (2012).

Lincoln Quillian & Devah Pager, Estimating Risk: Stereotype Amplification and the Perceived Risk of Criminal Victimization, 73 Soc. Psychol. Q. 79 (2010).

Victor D. Quintanilla, Critical Race Empiricism: A New Means to Measure Civil Procedure, 3 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 187 (2013).

Jennifer A. Richeson & Maureen A. Craig, Intra-Minority Intergroup Relations in the Twenty-First Century, 140 Daedalus 166 (2011).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Law, Race, and Biotechnology: Toward a Biopolitical and Transdisciplinary Paradigm, 9 Ann. Rev. Law & Soc. Sci. 149 (2013).

Dorothy E. Roberts, The Politics of Race and Science: Conservative Colorblindness and The Limits of Liberal Critique, 12 Du Bois Rev. 199 (2015).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Sujatha Jesudason, Movement Intersectionality: The Case of Race, Gender, Disability, and Genetic Technologies, 10 DuBois Rev. 313 (2013).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Michael Yudell, Sarah Tishkoff & Rob DeSalle, Taking Race Out of Human Genetics, 351 Science 564 (2016).

Aliya Saperstein, Racial Formation in Perspective: Connecting Individuals, Institutions, and Power Relations, 39 Ann. Rev. of Soc. 359 (2013).

Aliya Saperstein and Andrew M. Penner, Beyond the Looking Glass: Exploring Fluidity in Racial Self-Identification and Interviewer Classification, 57 Soc. Persp. 185 (2014).

Aliya Saperstein, Andrew M. Penner, Jessica M. Kizer, The Criminal Justice System and the Racialization of Perceptions, 651 Annals of the Am. Acad. Of Pol. & Soc. Sci. 104 (2014). 

Robert J. Sampson & Janet L. Lauritsen, Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States, 21 Crime & Just. 311 (1997).

Sanford F. Schram, Joe Soss, Richard Fording & Linda Houser, Deciding to Discipline: Race, Choice, and Punishment on the Frontlines of Welfare Reform, 74 Am. Soc. Rev. 398 (2009).

Maya Sen, Is Justice Really Blind? Race and Reversal in US Courts,  44 J. Legal Stud. 5187 (2015).

Samuel R. Sommers, Race and the Decision Making of Juries, 12 Leg. & Criminological Psych. 171 (2007).

Samuel R. Sommers & Phoebe C. Ellsworth (2009). ”Samuel R. Sommers & Phoebe C. Ellsworth (2009). ”Race” Salience in Juror Decision-Making: Misconceptions, Clarifications, and Unanswered Questions27 Behav. Sci. & L. 599 (2009).

Samuel R. Sommers & Phoebe Ellsworth, White Juror Bias: An Investigation of Prejudice Against Black Defendants in the American Courtroom, 7 Psychology, Pub. Pol'y & L. 201 (2001).

Bryan Sykes & Michele Maroto, A Wealth of Inequalities: Mass Incarceration, Employment, and Racial Disparities in Household Wealth, U.S. 1996-2011, 2 Russell Sage Found. J. 129 (2016).

Miguel M. Unzueta & Kevin R. Binning, Diversity Is in the Eye of the Beholder: How Concern for the In-Group Affects Perceptions of Racial Diversity, 38 Pers Soc. Psychol. Bull. 26 (2012).

Miguel M. Unzueta, Benjamin A. Everly & Angela S. Gutiérrez, Social Dominance Orientation Moderates Reactions to Black and White Discrimination Claimants, 54 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 81 (2014).

Miguel M. Unzueta, Angélica S. Gutiérrez & Negin Ghavami, How Believing in Affirmative Action Quotas Affects White Women’s Self-Image, 46 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 120 (2010).

Miguel M. Unzueta, Eric D. Knowles & Geoffrey C. Ho, Diversity is What You Want it to Be: How Social Dominance Motives Affect Diversity Construals, 23 Psychol. Sci. 303 (2012).

Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve, Criminal Justice Through “Colorblind” Lenses: A Call to Examine the Mutual Constitution of Race and Criminal Justice, 40 L. & Soc. Inquiry 406 (2015).

Geoff Ward, Amy Farrell & Danielle Rousseau, Does Racial Balance in Workforce Representation Yield Equal Justice? Race Relations of Sentencing in Federal Court Organizations, 43 L. & Soc’y Rev. 757 (2009).

Geoff Ward, Aaron Kupchik, Laurin Parker & Brian Chad Starks, Racial Politics of Juvenile Justice Policy Support: Juvenile Court Worker Orientations Toward Disproportionate Minority Confinement, 1 Race & Just. 154 (2011).

Ruqaiijah Yearby, Does Twenty-Five Years Make a Difference in ‘Unequal Treatment?’: The Persistence of Racial Disparities in Health Care Then and Now, 19 Annals Health L. 57 (2010). 

Book Chapters

Michelle Wilde Anderson & Victoria Plaut, Property Law: Implicit Bias and the Resilience of Spatial Colorlines, in Implicit Racial Bias Across the Law (Justin D. Levinson, Robert J. Smith, eds., Cambridge U. Press, 2012). 

Kim Shayo Buchanan, E-race-ing Gender: The Racial Construction of Prison Rape, in Masculinities and the Law: A Multidimensional Approach (Frank R. Cooper & Ann C. McGinley, eds., N.Y.U. Press, 2012). 

Laura E. Gomez, A Tale of Two Genres: On the Real and Ideal Links Between Law and Society and Critical Race Theory in The Blackwell Companion to Law and Society (Austin Sarat ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2004).

Tanya Katerí Hernández, Latinos at Work: When Color Discrimination Involves More Than Color, in Shades Of Difference: Why Skin Color Matters (Eveleyn Nakano Glen, ed., Stan. U. Press, 2009). 

Jerry Kang, Bits of Bias, in Implicit Bias Across the Law (Justin Levinson & Robert Smith eds., Oxford U. Press, 2012).

Osagie A. Obasogie, Race, Genetics, and the Regulatory Need for Race Impact Assessments in Race and the Genetic Revolution, Science, Myth, and Culture 255 (Sheldon Krimsky & Kathleen Sloan eds., Colum. U. Press, 2011).

Devah Pager, The ‘Stickiness’ of Race in an Era of Mass Incarceration, in Beyond Discrimination: Racial Inequality in a Postracist Era New York (Robert Lieberman & Frederick Harris eds., Russell Sage Press, 2013).

Bryan Sykes, Alex R. Piquero, Jason Gioviano & Nicolas Pittman, The Prison Pipeline in America, 1972-2012 in The Oxford Handbook of Criminology and Criminal Justice (Michael Tonry ed., Oxford U. Press, 2015).

Bryan Sykes, Alex R. Piquero, Jason Gioviano & Nicolas Pittman, Up To No Good: The Context of Adolescent Discrimination in Neighborhoods in Deadly Injustice: Trayvon Martin, Race, and the Criminal Justice System (Devon Johnson, Patricia Warren & Amy Farrell eds., N.Y.U. Press, 2015).


Jeannine Bell, Hate Thy Neighbor: Move-In Violence And The Persistence Of Racial Segregation In American Housing (NYU Press, 2013).

Devon W. Carbado & Mitu Gulati, Acting White? Rethinking Race in Post-Racial America (Oxford U. Press, 2013).

Richard Delgado, Charles R. Lawrence, Mari J. Matsuda & Kimberle W. Crenshaw, Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech and the First Amendment (Westview, 1993).

Laura E. Gómez & Nancy Lopez, eds., Mapping “Race”: Critical Approaches to Health Disparities Research (Rutgers U. Press, 2013).

Laura E. Gómez, Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race (N.Y.U. Press, 2007). 

Kaaryn Gustafson, Cheating Welfare: Public Assistance and the Criminalization of Poverty (N.Y.U. Press, 2011). 

Ian Haney Lopez, Dog Whistle Politics (Oxford U. Press, 2013). 

Ann Morning, The Nature of Race: How Scientists Think and Teach about Human Difference (U.C. Press, 2011). 

Osagie A. Obasogie, Blinded By Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind (Stan. U. Press, 2014).

Devah Pager, Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration (U. Chi. Press, 2007).

Becky Pettit, Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress (Russell Sage Foundation, 2012). 

Dorothy E. Roberts, Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-Create Race in the Twenty-First Century (The New Press, 2012).

Daria Roithmayr, Reproducing Racism: How Everyday Choices Lock in White Advantage (N.Y.U. Press, 2014).

Katheryn Russell, The Color of Crime (N.Y.U. Press, 1998).

Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve, Crook County: Racism and Injustice in America’s Largest Criminal Court (Stanford University Press, 2016).

Geoff Ward, The Black Child Savers (U. Chi. Press, 2012).


Jerry Kang, Implicit Bias Primer for Courts (National Center for State Courts, 2009).

Carolyn A. Liebler, Sonya Rastogi, Leticia E. Fernandez, James M. Noon & Sharon R. Ennis, America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census (Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications, U.S. Census Bureau, 2014).


Rabie Kadri
Law Centers Manager
(949) 824-2370